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Magni Clear Solar Pool Covers

WHAT is Magni Clear?
Magni Clear solar pool covers or solar pool covers by Blue Wave are top quality solar pool covers made of a clear polymer material to take the most advantage of the sun's heating (solar) power. Our Magni Clear pool cover line includes Above-Ground Solar Pool Covers, and In-Ground Solar Pool Covers,
Magni Clear Product Highlights - Here are 10 product highlights about investing in the best solar pool cover you can buy:
  • Blue Wave Magni Clear solar pool covers are made of the highest quality 14-gauge material to outlast most other in-ground and above-ground pool covers in the pool market.
  • Blue Wave Magni Clear solar pool covers because they don’t use energy don’t harm or pollute the environment like a pool heater may do. A true "green" way to heat your in ground or above ground pool. 
  • Blue Wave Magni Clear solar covers heat your above ground or in ground pool faster because they are manufactured with a long-life design based on maximum solar heating and insulation properties.
  • Blue Wave Magni Clear solar pool covers are covered with air bubbles that act as an insulating layer, shielding the pool from wind, cloudy skies, and cool night time temperatures.
  • A Magni Clear solar pool cover will leave a pool up to 15° F warmer than an uncovered pool.
  • Magni Clear pool covers are U.V.-protected to hold up under the most intense sunlight.
  • Magni Clear pool covers are built to withstand properly used pool chemicals.
  • Blue Wave Magni Clear solar pool covers allow the sun’s heat to fully travel through the pool cover, while air bubbles further magnify that heat to reach greater depths of pool water quickly and efficiently.
  •  Blue Wave Magni Clear solar covers with their "clear" color outperform solar pool covers of different colors, such as black and silver, which absorb or reflect heat from the pool water—leaving it cool—and prevent the pool cover from properly heating up the pool water.
  • Above-Ground Magni Clear solar pool covers are backed by a five-year warranty, and In-Ground Magni Clear solar pool covers are backed by a six-year warranty.
Getting Started with Magni Clear Pool Covers
There are four important facts for effectively using a solar pool covers: proper installation, handling, care, and cleaning and storage.
  1. Proper installation of your solar pool cover - Install the solar pool cover on the pool bubbles-side down. Before trimming, the solar cover should be left on the pool for a few days to allow wrinkles and folds to disappear. Use ordinary scissors, being careful not to puncture the lining of the pool. The solar pool cover should fit snug to the pool sidewall. To avoid trimming the pool cover too small, the first cut should leave the solar cover slightly larger than the above ground or in ground pool. Make the final trim a few days later. The solar pool cover should not overlap the sidewall, which could result in an opening for wind to get under the pool cover cooling the pool water.A properly fitted solar pool cover will be held in place by surface adhesion, requiring no tie-downs during windy periods and heavy rain. Avoid putting the pool cover on the lawn for any reason. The sun's rays passing through the bubbles could cause damage to the grass.
  2. Proper handling of your solar pool cover - by using the "fanfold" technique, two people can easily remove a solar pool cover from an in ground or above ground pool in minutes. Simply pull three or four feet at a time over one end of the pool and continuously fanfold the solar pool cover "accordion fashion" until the entire pool cover is stacked on the deck. The solar cover can then easily be pulled back onto the pool in seconds.
  3. Proper care of your solar pool cover -Always cover the pool cover with its protective sheet when it is not on the pool. You should avoid storing the solar pool cover in an area where temperatures might reach 120 degrees F. These extreme temperatures can expand the bubbles and cause de-lamination and blistering, thereby weakening the solar cover. Solar pool cover defects can be caused by exposure to the sun or incorrect storage while off the pool. Be advised that such defects won't be covered by the manufacturer warranty. The solar pool cover should be removed any time the pool is being chemically treated. Never put back a solar pool cover onto the pool until safe concentration levels are reached. The level of chlorine should not rise above 3 parts per million. If the pool chlorine level must be raised over this point, the pool cover should be removed. Damage caused by excessive pool chemical exposure is NOT included from the manufacturer warranty.
  4. Cleaning and storage of your solar pool cover - A clean, clear solar pool cover is more efficient than a darker, dirtier one. Cleaning will allow more of the sun's rays to pass through the solar pool cover to heat pool water at all deeper depths. Use a cleaner that is chemically safe for solar pool covers with water and a soft brush. To keep the pool water cleaner, hose off the dirt and leaves from the floating pool cover directly into the pool skimmer. Before storing the solar cover, clean it and allow it to dry thoroughly to prevent mold and mildew. Fold it on the seams and roll it from one end. Place the solar pool cover in a clean, dry, rodent-free area where temperatures will not reach 120 degrees F. To prolong the life of a solar pool cover, it should be removed from the pool during the winter months and replaced by a winter pool cover.
Editor's note: Reference material taken from: cover.html

Why go solar for pool heating?
A solar pool cover—also called a solar cover or a solar blanket—is the least expensive type of swimming pool cover. Solar pool covers are a necessity for any in ground or above ground pool owner. The cost advantage is distinct: Using a solar pool cover instead of an expensive pool heater to keep pool water warm may well cut pool heating costs by as much as 70 percent.
Remember: A pool heater will increase the home utility bill, even when a pool is enjoyed for only a brief season. Solar pool covers are made from a durable polymer material with thousands of tiny sealed air bubbles. These covers float "bubble side down" on the surface of the pool water when the pool is not in use, and allow solar energy to pass through. That solar energy is then trapped as heat in the pool. Solar covers might actually be thought of as passive solar heating for a pool. Solar covers work equally well on above-ground and in-ground pools.
Be a "green" pool owner: Learn what solar energy is, and reduce pool heating costs
The sun is the strongest natural heat source for any swimming pool. That's exactly why today's green pool owners will praise the advantages of using a solar pool cover. A clear solar pool cover lets the sun's rays pass through the cover and raise the water temperature. A clear solar pool cover can pay for itself. Here are some of the benefits of using a solar pool cover:
  1. Greater heat retention
  2. Less pool water evaporation and better water conservation by reducing the amount of make-up water needed by 30%-50%
  3. Reduced pool chemical consumption by 35%-60%
  4. Decreased pool cleaning time
  5. Keeps dirt and debris out of the pool water
Swimming pools lose heat in a variety of ways, but evaporation is by far the largest source of energy loss. As much as 70% of heat loss from a swimming pool is due to evaporation. When compared to evaporation, all other losses are small. Since evaporation is the major source of heat loss for all swimming pools, the best way to minimize evaporation is to cover the pool. A clear solar pool cover acts as a vapor barrier for both in ground and above ground pools, dramatically preventing radiant heat loss and resulting in significant energy savings. Covering the pool water when the pool is not in use is the single most effective way to reduce heating costs.
 Pool water and heat loss
Almost all of a pool's heat loss—about 95 percent—occurs at the water’s surface, mostly through evaporation to the air and radiation to the sky. Pool water evaporation involves a huge amount of energy. While it only takes 1 BTU (British thermal unit) to raise 1 pound of water 1 degree, each pound of 80ºF water that evaporates sucks 1,048 BTUs of heat out of the pool.

The evaporation rate is dependent on the swimming pool’s initial temperature, the surrounding air temperature and humidity, and the wind speed at the pool surface. The higher the pool temperature and wind speed and the lower the humidity, the greater the evaporation rate.

A windbreak—such as a fence or bush or tree line surrounding the pool—will reduce evaporation and make pool more comfortable and private. For example, a 7-mph wind at the pool surface can increase heat loss by 300 percent. A windbreak needs to be high and close enough to the in ground or above ground pool so that it effectively blocks wind from moving across the pool surface, but doesn't shade the area and therefore block beneficial solar energy.

Solar energy is defined as the energy received by the earth from the sun in the form of solar radiation, which makes the production of solar electricity possible. An outdoor pool may gain a significant amount of heat from the sun, absorbing 75 to 85 percent of solar energy striking the pool surface. A transparent bubble cover made specifically for swimming pools may reduce solar energy absorption by 5% to 15%, while an opaque cover may reduce it by 20% to 40%. And even though indoor pools aren't subjected to weather elements, they still lose the same percentage of energy from evaporation as an outdoor pool.

Energy LossEnergy Loss indoor            

The humidity that exists in an indoor pool area confirms the high levels of evaporation. An indoor pool also requires ventilation and air conditioning systems to cut through the humidity, which increases energy costs.
Solar pool covers help pool owners save on energy costs. Certain types of solar covers are made from UV-stabilized polyethylene, polypropylene, or vinyl to resist breaking down. Some of these pool covers are reminiscent of bubble packing material, but comprise a thicker grade of plastic with UV inhibitors. The vinyl solar covers are made from heavier material and usually have a longer life expectancy than bubble solar covers. Finally, insulated vinyl pool covers also are available with a thin layer of flexible insulation sandwiched between two layers of vinyl.

pool cover type
To determine the effectiveness of a solar pool cover, consider whether the evaporation and other losses prevented by the cover exceed the solar gain reduction caused by the cover. As previously indicated, dry or windy conditions increase the evaporation rate off of the pool’s water surface. A pool in this environment benefits from a transparent or bubble cover to maximize light absorption. As warmth and humidity increase, the evaporation rate decreases.
More on methods
When a swimming pool is expected to be in use all day, the solar cover should be taken off just before the pool is opened, and placed back over the water as soon as the pool is no longer in use. There are several methods for covering a pool. The simplest and lowest-cost method is to manually pull the cover on and off, fold it, and place it out of the way. When paying someone to handle this chore, consider that cost in the economic evaluation of any pool cover.
Another option is to purchase a solar pool cover reel that can be used to manually roll up the pool cover. The reel, usually on wheels, can then be rolled out of the way. Semi-automatic covers use a motor-driven reel system run by electrical power to roll and unroll the cover. These types of pool cover systems usually require someone to pull on the cover when unrolling, or guide the cover onto the reel when rolling the cover up. Automatic covers feature permanently mounted reels that cover and uncover the pool at the push of a button. One must weigh the cost of labor for the manual and semi-automatic covers to determine which route is best for their particular situation. Some pool covers are fitted into tracks along the sides of the pool, preventing anything or anyone from getting into the water. They even support the weight of several people. If liability is a concern, these type covers are worth exploration as they can be run manually, semi-automatically, or automatically.
Quick tip
Clear solar pool covers allow more solar heat to reach the depths of a pool and heat it thoroughly. Blue Wave Magni Clear™ solar pool covers allow the sun’s heat to fully travel through the pool cover while air bubbles further magnify that heat to reach greater depths of pool water. Magni Clear pool covers are built with air bubbles that act as an insulating layer, shielding the pool from cool winds, cloudy spells, and nightly temperature cool downs. Magni Clear solar pool covers are U.V.-protected to last longer under the most intense sunlight and exposure to pool chemicals.
There is only one solar pool cover that provides the best heating and hassle free use on the market today: Blue Wave Magni Clear solar pool covers!

Magni Clear Solar Pool Cover Advantages
Save money with heat from the sun!
The sun gives off so much heat during the day that it's smart to take advantage of it and heat a swimming pool. Blue Wave Magni Clear™ solar pool covers are the best solar covers available for harnessing the heat from the sun. With a Magni-Clear solar cover, a pool can be opened earlier in the spring and closed later in the fall. Here’s why:
  • Blue Wave Magni Clear solar pool covers, backed by a 5 or 6 Year Warranty, are made from the highest quality 12- and 14-gauge material available today. These covers will outlast most other covers, which only make it through a season or two.
  • Magni Clear's material works with the sun to capture heat as it prisms through raised air pockets. Pool water stays nice and warm—day after day, night after night.
  • Blue Wave Magni Clear will warm a pool by up to 15°F by delivering maximum heating properties. The pool covers are loaded with thermal bubbles that retain heat at night and on cool, cloudy days.
  • Magni Clear's transparency allows the maximum amount of solar rays to reach the pool for optimal heating.
  • Blue WaveMagni Clear solar pool covers are U.V.-protected so they last under even the most intense sunlight.
  • Blue Wave Magni Clear solar pool covers come in a variety of sizes to fit even the largest of pools. They may be cut to perfectly fit the pool shape without leaving any stray areas that could prevent full insulation.
  • Magni Clear pool covers also allow more solar heat to reach the depths of a pool and heat it thoroughly.
Invest in the only solar pool cover that offers the best in hassle-free, economical heating: Blue Wave Magni Clear!
Blue Wave Magni Clear solar pool covers feature maximum heating and insulation properties and a long-life design. These durable pool covers are loaded with thermal bubbles that retain heat at night and on cool and cloudy days.

Magni Clear pool covers allow more solar heat to reach the depths of a pool and warm it thoroughly. Colored pool covers simply aren't as efficient. For example, black solar pool covers absorb heat, leaving the pool water cool. Similarly, silver pool covers reflect heat away from the pool water, preventing it from heating up the pool water efficiently (see graphic).

The transparent color of Magni Clear ensures the sun's heating rays are reaching the pool water. With a Blue Wave Magni Clear solar pool cover, an above-ground or in-ground pool will be up to 15°F warmer than an uncovered pool.
All Blue Wave Magni Clear pool covers are U.V.-protected so they last under even the most intense sunlight.
Magni Clear Chart
Don't Be Fooled by Cheap Imposters
A solar pool cover lets today's pool owner enjoy free heat from the sun. Solar pool covers—also called solar blankets —looks similar to bubble wrap, but good-quality solar pool covers like Blue Wave Magni Clear are made from much more durable material. For $75 to $150, a customer may be able to purchase large sheets of lesser-quality material to cut and fit to a pool. Some pool owners may see this as the cheapest way to raise the temperature of a swimming pool. But it could not be further from the truth. A large piece of plastic purchased from, say, the lumber store, will be very difficult to handle and store, tear easily, and deteriorate quickly in the sunlight. You can use it, but it will be very inconvenient and will only last one to two seasons max.
The life span and the effectiveness of cheap pool cover substitutes and inferior brand solar pool covers will be significantly less than that found with a solar cover made from the highest-quality material available. You will find that with Blue Wave Magni Clear, the only solar pool cover that provides the best heating and hassle-free use on the market today.

Specifications & sizes
• 12 gauge material
• Clear Solar pool cover
• 5-Year Warranty

Available in Round & Oval sizes:
15' Round
12x24' Oval
18' Round
15x30' Oval
21' Round
16x32' Oval
24' Round
18x33' Oval
28' Round
18x40' Oval
30' Round
21x41' Oval
33' Round
• 14 gauge material
• Clear Solar pool cover
• 6-Year Warranty

Available in Rectangular sizes:
12' X 24'
14' X 28'
16' X 32'
18' X 36'
20' X 40'
20' X 44'
30' X 50'
Frequently Asked Questions regarding solar pool heating systems. 
1) Should a solar pool cover be taken off an unheated pool during the day? - During the day, solar energy from the sun heats the pool. While there are plenty of manufacturer claims saying their pool covers "heats" the pool, this is false. All pool covers block some of the solar energy coming from the sun. Industry data indicates that clear covers block 5% to 15% of the sun, while colored pool covers block 20% to 40%. So, should a pool owner uncover the pool during the day when it is not in use? It depends. On calm, humid days, take it off because the extra heat outweighs evaporation. On dry, windy days, the evaporation loss outweighs the cover loss, so it's advisable to leave it on. The darker the cover, the more beneficial it is to take it off. Always leave a cover for cloudy days and at night.
Quick tip: Find out the dew point from your local weather service. If it's below your pool's current temperature, keep the cover on. If it's above your pool's temperature, take it off. This isn't a perfect method, but it will always come close. On a very sunny day, it might be better to keep the solar cover off even if the dew point is a couple degrees below your pool's temperature.
2) What types of pool heaters are available today, and how does each work to heat the water of a pool or spa?
  • Direct Pool Heater: Heats the tubes through which water circulates.
  • Electric Pool Heaters: Elements submerged in water use electrical energy to extract heat from the air, upgrade it with a compressor, and then transfer it into the water.
  • Fossil-Fueled Pool Heaters: Natural or Propane gas is burned in a combustion chamber whereby the heat is then transferred into the pool water.
  • Indirect Pool Heaters: Circulate steam or hot water inside an exchanger through which water flows.
  • Solar Pool Heaters: Transfer energy derived from the sun's rays to heat the water as it passes through the solar panels. Solar Pool heaters are available for both in-ground and above-ground pools.
3) How does a pool owner determine what size and type of pool heater is best for them?

While each situation is different, this list of factors should always be considered when sizing and selecting a pool heater:
  • Length of swim season;
  • Preferred water temperature;
  • Type of pool use (exercise, kids playing, casual dips, etc.);
  • Therapeutic requirement;
  • Screen enclosures and other direct shading of pool surface;
  • Open space and windbreaks;
  • Waterfront location;
  • Distance between pool equipment pad and pool heater;
  • Availability of sufficient un-shaded roof or other installation location, if considering solar heaters;
  • Direction best available roof area faces, if considering solar heaters;
  • Ability and willingness to use a pool cover; and
  • Ability and willingness to pay increasing energy costs.
4) What will solar energy cost me if I want to use solar energy to heat my swimming pool or hot tub?
A pre-fab system can be purchased for several hundred dollars. Heating an average pool for the swimming season uses about the same amount of energy as most homes require per year. The costs go beyond monthly heating bills when considering greenhouse gas emissions involved. A solar pool heater pays for itself quickly. Solar pool covers are the cheapest way to reduce heat loss and save energy. A pool owner also can make their own solar pool heater using a simple pump and some black PVC piping.
A solar pool heating system will cost between $2,000 and $4,000, depending on size, model specifications and options—e.g., automatic controls. Since energy is being saved, the pool owner may qualify for government financing incentives. As with most solar power, the closer you are to the equator, the more energy you will get out of your system.
Almost anywhere in the world, a solar pool heater is a good investment.
Typically, a solar collector should be at least half the square footage of the pool surface area. Collectors should be facing the sun. In more northern areas, there will be just one setting for summer swimming fun. Those who live in warmer climes will need to adjust their solar panels with the seasonally moving sunlight.
A solar pool heater simply plugs into the existing filtration unit. The option exists for an automatic system, which will have a controller and sensors to open and close a valve, deciding whether to send water back into the pool or through the collectors.
5) What should the temperature of a swimming pool be?
The answer resides with the individual pool owner. However, the pool temperature recommended by the American Red Cross for competitive swimming is 78° F. This may be too cool for young children and the elderly, who may desire 80° F or higher. The typical range is 78°- 82° F.
Keep in mind that the energy consumption for each degree rise in warmth will cost from 10% to 30% more in energy costs, depending on location. In warmer climates the percentage is higher due to the relatively low cost of heating to 78° F.
6) What are some ways to reduce pool heating costs?
Regardless of the type of pool heater purchased, there are a number of ways to reduce heating costs. Browse this tip list for help:
  • Keep a thermometer in the water. It will determine the temperature that is perfect for you.
  • Keep the thermostat at the lowest setting that still maintains a comfortable swimming environment.
  • Mark the "comfort setting" on the thermostat dial to avoid accidental or careless overheating.
  • Lower the thermostat setting to 70 degrees when the pool will go unused for three or four days. For longer periods, shut the pool heater off.
  • Protect the pool from wind using a fence or hedge. A 7-mph wind at the water surface can triple a pool's heat loss.
  • Use a pool cover when the pool is not in use. This will reduce energy consumption by 50% to 75%.
  • A pool heater should be tuned up annually to operate at peak efficiency.

Pool Heating Glossary
Browse our complete pool library of commonly used terminology relevant to swimming pool heating, power terms, and energy forms.

Acid rain: Rain with a harmful level of sulfuric, nitric, and other acids. Proven deadly to some ecosystems, it arises from emissions released in burning of fossil fuels.

Alternating current (AC): An electric current that alternates direction between positive and negative cycles, usually 50 or 60 times per second. Alternating current is the current typically available from power outlets in a household.

Ampere: A measure of electrical current. It is the number of electrons flowing past a given point in an electrical conductor in a given amount of time.

Base load: The minimum energy level a company provides its customers on a constant basis.

Biomass: Any organic material—especially trees and other vegetation—grown or produced for use as a renewable energy resource. Also called stored solar energy, wood burning, agricultural wastes, or methane gases spin turbines that then generate electricity.

BTU: Stands for British thermal unit—the amount of heat energy needed to raise the temperature of one pound of water by one degree Fahrenheit.

Calorie: Metric thermal unit: the amount of heat energy needed to raise the temperature of one kilogram of water by one degree Centigrade. The word is used in two contexts: large calories and small calorie. The "small calorie" used in fuel research, is the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of one gram of water one degree Celsius.

Carbon Dioxide (CO2): The colorless, odorless gas that is formed during normal human breathing. It is also emitted by combustion activities used to produce electricity. CO2 is a major cause of the greenhouse effect that traps radiant energy near the earth's surface.

Clean energy: See Renewable energy.

Concentrator: Usually a reflective mirror that focuses and enhances the sun's rays onto a photovoltaic surface. This may sometimes refer to a lens with the same purpose.

Competitive Power Supply: Any company that usually generates and then sells power.

Conservation: Achieving the reduction of energy usage through increased efficiency or reduced waste.

Deep cycle battery: A battery designed to tolerate up to 80% discharge of its capacity.

Depth of discharge (DOD): The amount of energy (expressed in percentage of its rated capacity) withdrawn from a battery, a battery bank, or a cell.

Deregulation: Governmental relaxation of controls. In terms of the electricity market, deregulation refers to ending monopolies by local utilities and allowing privatization.

Direct Current (DC): Electric current flowing in one direction in invariable amperage. This is most often associated with battery power.

Distributed Generation (Distributed Energy Resources): Electricity that is provided by small power generators located at or near end users.

Electric utility: Any agency or authority aligned with distribution facilities for delivery of electrical energy to the public. The notion of utility varies widely from state to state and from time to time, depending on fickle laws concerning regulation and deregulation.

Electric Utility Restructuring: Also called deregulation, this is the introduction of competition into various phases of electricity production.

Emissions: In the context of global warming, this is the release of radiatively relevant greenhouse gases. One example is the release of carbon dioxide during fuel combustion in an automobile engine.

Energy-efficient: A qualification of electrical products, in which they achieve an appropriate ratio of energy usage to work-type output. For example, an energy-efficient light bulb will use most of the input electrical energy to produce light, not heat.

Energy: The capacity to do work.

Energy sources: Three primary categories are fossil fuels (coal, oil, gas); nuclear (fission and fusion); and renewable (solar, wind, geothermal, biomass, hydro).

Evacuated tube: Used in solar thermal collectors, these are glass absorber tubes with the air evacuated and through which collector fluids (water or perhaps glycol) flows.

FERC: In the USA, The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission is an independent government agency that regulates rates charged by public utilities. Its jurisdiction is somewhat disputed but it includes the sale of electric power for resale.

Flat Plate Pumped: Most widely used among solar thermal collectors, this typically consists of a metal frame, glazing, and absorbers (usually metal), and insulation with a pump liquid (typically glycol) as the heat-transfer medium: used in water heating applications.

Fluorescent light: A lighting device that uses an electrified gas rather than filament.

Fossil fuels: Fuels (oil, coal, and gas) formed eons ago from decayed plants and animals.

Fuel Cell: A device producing electricity at high efficiency using a fuel and a chemical (usually an oxidizer) that reacts with it at two separate terminals, producing electricity.

Geothermal: Heat from the earth, customarily applied to energy from geysers and hot springs—which is now better characterized as hydro-geothermal. In recent years, this term is applied to any heat stored in earth and available as a renewable energy resource.

Global warming: The earth's gradual warming due to the "greenhouse effect."

Greenhouse effect: The effect achieved by the buildup of gases—e.g., CFCs and carbon dioxide—in the earth's atmosphere causing the earth to become hot (as a greenhouse).

Grid: The electrical distribution system, as laid out by wires, conductors, stations, etc.

Heater: A device used to heat the water of a pool or spa.
  • Direct Pool Heater: Heats the tubes through which water circulates.
  • Electric Pool Heaters: Elements submerged in water use electrical energy to extract heat from the air, upgrade it with a compressor, and then transfer it into the water.
  • Fossil-Fueled Pool Heaters: Natural or Propane gas is burned in a combustion chamber whereby the heat is then transferred into the pool water.
  • Indirect Pool Heaters: Circulate steam or hot water inside an exchanger through which water flows.
  • Solar Pool Heaters: Transfer energy derived from the sun's rays to heat the water as it passes through the solar panels. Solar Pool heaters are available for both in-ground and above-ground pools.
Heat exchanger: An indirect pool heater that transfers heat (through a solid) from one fluid to another without mixing the two fluids which is the main heating feature of a pool heater.

Heat Pump: A direct pool heater in which a fan pulls warm outside air past Freon gas, transferring the latent heat in the outside air to the Freon gas that is being pumped through a condenser coil. The heat is then released to the water in the pool as it passes by the Freon gas in the evaporator coil. This process's efficiency depends upon the amount of latent heat in the outside air and the relative humidity. The cooler the outside air and the lower the humidity, the less effective the unit is in heating the swimming pool.

Hydropower: Power obtained from the (typically gravitational) movement of water.

Incandescent light: A bulb using resistance to produce light when an electrical current passes through it. The conductor is usually a wire or filament.

Incentives Subsidies: Government actions in which indirect money is given to consumers under certain conditions.

Insulation (Solar): Radiant energy impinging on the earth in any given region or area.

Inverter: A device that changes direct current (DC) into alternating current (AC).

Joules: A measure of work or energy used in the Imperial System. A measure of work or energy. A simple definition is that a joule is the work required to lift a mass of about 100 g for one meter under the earth's gravity.

Kilowatt (kW): One thousand watts of electricity (see Watt).

Kilowatt-hour (kWh): One thousand watt-hours.
Load: The electricity required and used by any single or collection of electrical item(s).

Load profile: Collected information on a customer's usage over a set period of time. It is sometimes shown as a graph on the customer's bill.

Maximum power point (MPP): The voltage at which a PV array is producing maximum power.

Maximum power point tracker (MPPT): A power conditioning unit that increases the power of a PV system by ensuring operation of the PV generator at its Maximum Power Point (MPP). The ability to do so can depend on climate and the battery's state of charge.

Megawatt (MW): One million watts of electricity (see Watt).

Net Metering: An arrangement permitting a household or business (using a utility meter that spins forward and backward, reading both inflows and outflows of electricity) to sell excesses of power generated over its load back to the utility supplier to offset costs.

Nuclear fusion: A potentially limitless source of energy in which nuclei are fused, with an accompanying release of energy.

Off Peak/ On Peak: Times when energy demand and price is low (off-peak) or high (on-peak).

Ozone: A major agent in the formation of air pollution, this is actually a form of oxygen. Ozone is a result of photochemical reactions involving emissions from automobile and industrial processes. Ozone does occur naturally in earth's upper atmosphere (the ozone layer) where it protects the earth's surface against harmful effects of the sun's radiation. Ozone accumulation close to the earth's surface is harmful. Ozone depletion in the upper atmosphere is also harmful, as the ozone layer is essential to the preservation of the earth.

Passive Solar: A system in which solar energy alone is used for the transfer of thermal energy. Pumps, blowers, or other heat transfer devices that use energy other than solar are not used.

Peak load: The maximum demand for energy on a utility system that has to be met by the utility's power generating capacity.

Peak Watt: A manufacturer's unit indicating the amount of power a photovoltaic cell or module will produce at standard test conditions (normally 1,000 watts per square meter and 25 degrees Celsius).

Renewable energy: Energy from sources that cannot be used up or that are naturally replenishing: sunshine, water flow, wind and vegetation. Some add the qualification "Cannot be used up in one lifetime." Still other note that these are "flow-limited," in that there is a limited amount of energy per unit of time.

Renewable energy device: Any device that harvests a renewable energy resource. Solar panels, solar collectors, wind machines, hydroelectric turbines are a few examples.

The Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS): In the U.S., this is a mandate requiring that renewable energy provide a certain percentage of total energy generation or consumption.

Solar cell: A device made of silicon and semiconductor materials, producing electricity when exposed to sunlight. Movement of electrons is produced by fabrication of adjacent layers of materials with different characteristics.

Solar cooling: The use of devices that absorb sunlight to facilitate convection, similar to processes used in gas-fired refrigerators.

Solar electricity: Electricity produced in photovoltaic processes, by action of sunlight.

Solar energy: The radiant energy of the sun. This can be converted into usable forms of energy, such as heat or electricity.

Solar modules: Also called solar panels, these are the large collections of solar cells that can produce electricity at a worthwhile rate. These are packaged for end use and suited to be incorporated into solar energy or solar electricity) systems.

Solar Thermal collector: A device designed to collect solar radiation and convert it into thermal energy (usually to heat water).

Solar Thermal energy systems: Systems that collect the sun's energy to produce heat—usually to heat water.

Thermal: Pertaining to heat gain and heat retention.

Uninterruptible power supply: A device (likely containing batteries) that stores power for use when conventional power is unavailable—e.g., during a blackout.

Utility-Interactive System: Any solar PV installation that is connected to and interacting with a utility power line.

Volt: The unit of electric potential (intensity) and potential difference. It is also a relation of current to resistance—i.e., 1 volt is the potential difference across a resistance of 1 Ohm when a current of 1 Amp is flowing.

Watt (Electric): The basic unit of electrical power. It is only ever defined in reference to current and intensity—as in 1 watt equals 1 ampere of current under pressure of 1 volt.

Watt (Thermal): A unit of power in the metric system, expressed as energy per second.

Watt hour (Wh): A measure of energy, equal to 1 watt of power used or received by an electric circuit steadily for the duration of one hour.

Editor's note: Taken from sources found at